By Saul McLeod , updated One advantage of a stereotype is that it enables us to respond rapidly to situations because we may have had a similar experience before. One disadvantage is that it makes us ignore differences between individuals; therefore we think things about people that might not be true i.
The use of stereotypes is a major way in which we simplify our social world; since they reduce the amount of processing i.
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By stereotyping we infer that a person has a whole range of characteristics and abilities that we assume all members of that group have. Stereotypes lead to social categorization , which is one of the reasons for prejudice attitudes i. Negative stereotypes seem far more common, however. Researchers have found that stereotypes exist of different races, cultures or ethnic groups.
Stereotyping : Stereotypes And Stereotyping
Although the terms race, culture and ethnic groups have different meanings, we shall take them to mean roughly the same thing at the moment. The most famous study of racial stereotyping was published by Katz and Braly in when they reported the results of a questionnaire completed by students at Princeton University in the USA.
Most students at that time would have been white Americans and the pictures of other ethnic groups included Jews as shrewd and mercenary, Japanese as shrewd and sly, Negroes as lazy and happy-go-lucky and Americans as industrious and intelligent. Not surprisingly, racial stereotypes always seem to favor the race of the holder and belittle other races.
Argumentative essay stereotypes
It is probably true to say that every ethnic group has racial stereotypes of other groups. There is no evidence for this view, however, and many writers argue that it is merely a way of justifying racist attitudes and behaviors. Aim : To investigate stereotypical attitudes of Americans towards different races.
Method : Questionnaire method was used to investigate stereotypes.
American university students were given a list of nationalities and ethic groups e. Irish, Germans etc. They were asked to pick out five or six traits which they thought were typical of each group. Results : There was considerable agreement in the traits selected. White Americans, for example, were seen as industrious, progressive and ambitious.
African Americans were seen as lazy, ignorant and musical.
Participants were quite ready to rate ethnic groups with whom they had no personal contact. Conclusion : Ethnic stereotypes are widespread, and shared by members of a particular social group. Later studies conducted in and found changes in the stereotypes and the extent to which they are held. In general, stereotypes in the later study tended to be more positive but the belief that particular ethnic groups held particular characteristics still existed.
Also, it should be noted that this study has relied entirely on verbal reports and is therefore extremely low in ecological validity. We as part of the generation Y should know how these stereotypes could affect us as individuals. We should learn not to judge and prejudge about people because of what we think they should be like, and should change our point of view about the stereotypes that are deeply rooted in our society. The negatives effects that stereotyping causes in people are many. Some of the negatives effects are harm, poor performance in different activities, and even health problems.
Conclusion – A Chain Reaction: From Gender Stereotypes to Gender Inequality
Nauert based his arguments based on a study of the University of Toronto that shows how people get hurt because of stereotypes, and how it could affect their performance in different task. They are more likely to exhibit a lack of self-control. They have trouble making good, rational decisions.
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This demonstrates how individuals are affected in a negative way because of negative stereotypes. But not only bad stereotypes cause negative effects in individuals.
Gender stereotypes and perceptions in society
Good stereotypes can also be harmful and cause new problems. They are even worse because people are not aware they are causing harm. This can be harmful to many individuals. Burkeman argument is based in a study by the Duke University that discovered that positive stereotypes can be harmful in different situations without people realizing they are doing so. In this study the participants were exposed to fake articles related to black people.
The first article was positive and showed that black people are better at sports. Next the participants were exposed to a negative article about that black people are more prone to violence. This demonstrates how good and bad stereotypes are equally bad because it causes prejudgment and leads to bigger problems. Stereotypes create a misconception of how people are and how they live in other cultures, religions, or countries.
This misconception could cause problems such as discrimination.
This is a big problem in our multicultural society. She uses the example of when she first came to the US to study. She says that a woman felt sorry about her because she came from Africa, and even ask her if she could listen her tribal music. This demonstrates how people are influenced by a single story of a country or a person, and are no aware of many other stories that could change the perception of them. What if my roommate knew about the heart procedure that was performed in the Lagos hospital last week?
What if my roommate knew about contemporary Nigerian music, talented people singing in English and Pidgin, and Igbo and Yoruba and Ijo, mixing influences from Jay-Z to Fela to Bob Marley to their grandfathers. What if we see in other countries, cultures, or religions not only what we belief, but also other stories that could change our perception.
It is important to learn from each other to understand and avoid stereotypes that could be harmful. Stereotypes are creating problems in kids. These problems can affect children in many ways. We can see the negatives effects in many areas such as the academic area. He support his claim based on a study of the University of Berkeley that shows how racial stereotypes make the children perform poorly in school. He mentions how we could solve these problems.